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חוברת 1

חוברת 1

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Sirkin, R.M. (1995). Statistics for the social sciences. Sage.
Ferguson, G.A. & Takane, Y.(1989). Statistical analysis in psychology and education.
McGrew-Hill Book.


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. . x 1* y 1 + x 2 *y 2 ......+ x n* y n 6 . (x 1 +4 )+(x 2 +4)+.....(x n +4)
" . cx 1 + cx 2 ...... +cx n , . c*x 1*y 1 + c*x 2*y 2 +....c*x n*y n


20

4. 4,)- : x 1 =5 x 2 =6 x 3 =12 x 4 =15
y 1 = 2 y 2 =3 y 3 =7 y 4 =10 +(,-5, , c=5 a=4
7,65 , '3 " ),15" ),1,,#*" ),-,0- )1 ,!1 $%-,)- % :
1 . ! (xi + yi )= ! xi + ! yi 5 . ! (xi - yi )= !xi - !yi
. . ! cxi = c ! xi 6 . ! xi yi = ! xi * ! yi
" . (!xi ) ² = ! x i ² , . ! (xi +a)= a+!xi


2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 6
1 .
2 . 637200 6 . 291600 1 . 540
" . 29360 5 . 9600
, . 11760 . . 800

4 .
6 . 4,0- 1! 1 . 4,0-
" . 4,0- 1! 5 . 4,0-
, . 4,0- 1! . . 4,0-


21
13$0 ,('+ 4 - 5"4++ 5$)+% "8&,+

%"#,. ,('+ 7
1. 1 . "-,)-" "!58" &,53 ,5#/ : 3;,** , 4,%;/, /%0# .
f(x) x
4 5 - 8
7 8 - 11
26 11 - 14
41 14 - 17
14 17 - 20
8 20 - 23
5 . 3 ),.!')"" )&,; !3 &*,! 4)%- "* " ,5#,/# $%66*" ' ?
2. &6(* 6/1 !0! 4,%;/" )1 ,5#/ ),-,)-" $%&'(*" ), .
" . 10 , 1 , 3 , 6 , 6,9 , 6 , 8 . 1 . 1 , 2 , 5 , 7 , 9 .
, . 42 , 12 , 19 , 24 , 24 , 19 . 5 . 51 , 26 , 15 , 3 , 7 .
2 . 4 , 4 , 5 , 5 , 5 , 6 , 6 . . . 64 , 45 , 35 , 30 , 25 , 6 .
/ . 0 , 0 , 0 , 7 , 9 , 25 . 6 . 91 , 7 , 6 , 6 , 6 , 5 , 4 .
% . . "&6( )1 $%6/1* ,%" ,! ' 6 "&6(, ,' " "* "%
4,%;/" ?
8 . 1 "&6( )1 $%6/1* ,%" ,! ' " "&6(, ,' "%" "*
4,%;/" ?

3. 4,%;/ ,5#/ , 3;,**, /%0# , "15" ),%,/%0#" )!58 &,53 :
),/%0# f(x) "%.,!,7%(,*5 4,%; f
5 40 - 60
5 60 - 70
10 70 - 75
12 75 - 85


22
10 85 - 100
42 ( " "

4. 3;,**5 $%/%,,&* $%/1 "#%*/ 350 # " $,%! / . 4,%;/" 1," 240 .
1 . 5 &,05" /1" )&,0#* )1 ,!3" $1 225 - # " / , #6/" 3;,**" "%"% "* ?
5 . &),% !,6. "%"% #6/" 4,%;/" $1" , )36! &#'1 %1# ,1 &),% 487 ?
5. !# $%-,%; )&6( 9%-'! 12 $%6%*!) :
70 , 70 , 70 , 80 , 80 , 75 , 80 , 85 , 65 , 75 , 90 , 60 .
" 6/1 )1 ,6%&," ),-%/5" !# )&2,/ "7%655 * $%-,%; 70 - ! 50 - . !3 "2 %,-%# 3%'#% 6;%0 3;,**" ,
/%0#", 4,%;/" ?
6. 1 . %20&* 66*0 $%1)* ,-%1 3;,**" 15" ),6%6*" 8(* "2%15 , 3,6*, ?
1 . 0 , 8 , 2 , 3 , 0 , 6 , 8 , 10 .
5 . 9 , 7 , 7 , 5 , 5 , 5 , 3 , 1 , 5 .
. . 0 , 11 , 120 , 4 , 5 .
6 . 100 , 90 , 80 , 10 , 30 , 40 .
5 . . +%3(5 $1 ' *" +!/,% &'( 120 5 6 - , 3;,**" !3 &56" 3%'#% 6;%0 , /%0#", 4,%;/" ?
7. "*!# ")%0 !# $%-,%;" )*%#& $,7*5 6/1 %-%%',1 4,%; &,(*! #75)" %17%8(%88( . 9&3 "2%15
"#%&6" )1 $%%7! 4%%-,3* 1," $1 &/5% %20&* :
1 . "%"% %20&*" 9&3" 4* ),%8(" $,0( 0 .
5 . , &%"* "%"% %20&*" 9&3" !# 5,#%/" !7 .
. . ),.!')"" 3;*15 /&0"5 $7,** "%"%# .
6 . $%0&3" &,6%(5 %,!) "%"% 1!# .
" . %!*%-%* "%"% $%%)%*1" $%0&3" 4%5! %20&*" 9&3" 4%5 ),%8(" %3,5%& $,0(# .
8. 1 . "15" $%&'(*" )&6( %&51 3;,** )1 ,5#/ :
75 , 46 , 57 , 86 , 44 , 90 , 98 , 89 , 19 , 99 , 100 , 75 , 35 , 64 , 86 , 68 , 99 , 100 , 86 , 46 , 66 , 35
, 99 .
5 . "15" ),%,/%0#" )!585# $%&'(*" 3;,** )1 5#/ :


23

f(x) X
3 10 - 50
4 50 - 60
9 60 - 70
15 70 - 80
7 80 - 90
3 90 - 100
. . 1 +%3( )1 &,)'! %60 #*)#"! 9%&; 4"5# ),1/(,-" 4%5# !65"" ,"* 8&' ' 5 +%3(, ' .
9. 3;,** )*%%,(* ")%05 Q . I $%-5" !# 1," 105 1," ),-5" !#, 108 . %' #% ")%05 2 &#1* ),-5
$%-5 . " 3;,** ,"* - Q . I ")%05 ?
10. !# %#6,/" &0#" ),.!')" $0%-'! 200 !3'*5 $%65,3 .
f (x) X
10 0 - 500
22 500 - 1000
60 1000 - 1500
64 1500 - 2000
26 2000 - 2500
18 2500 - 3000
200 ( " "
1 . /%0# 5#/! #% , 3;,** 4,%;/ .
5 . #% 4%5" $,/)" )1 5#/! - %-,35& .
. . 4,)/), 4,%!3 4,&%#3 5#/! #% .
6 . !# )%!*%(7*" "(-0"" %"* 3,57! #% 30% ),0,*-" ),&,0#*" %!35 $%!3,'" .


24

11. (&,75 $%8-6,8( !# $%-,%; ),.!')" $0%-'! " $%&2%%/" !# "7%81,'" ."
f (x) X
8 0 - 20
22 20 - 40
30 40 - 60
15 60 - 80
25 80 - 100
100 ( " "
1 . 4,%;/ 5#/! #% , 3;,**, /%0# .
5 . %3%5&" 4,&%#3! )/)* $%1;*-# $%6%*!)! )6/,%* ";,57 /,)'! 8!/," . ",5." 4,%;" "%"% "*
,2 ";,575 $%6%*!)" !# &),%5 ?
. . ! ".!* ))! 8%!/" 456- - 2% &),%5 $%",5." $%-,%;" %!35 $%8-6,8(" . $%102 4,%; "2%1*
".!*! $%8-6,8(" ?
6 . &," )8%# ),(-! ,;& !# "#6/ "1 50% $%%20&*" $%-,%;" %!35 $%6%*!)"* . $%-,%; ,!1 %!35
%,(%-5 ,'))#% ?

2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 7
1 . 1 . 3;,** : 14.84 , /%0# : 15.5 , 4,%;/ : 14.95
5 . 1 ),.!')"" - )%!%!# )%&8*%( ) /%0# < 4,%;/ < 3;,** (
2 .
6 . 6 . . 32.5 5 . 15 1 . 5
, . 21.5 " . 6.16 ) & "-)#*" $1 +%; ( ,1 6 ) 6%65 "-)#*" $1 (
% . 7 8 . 6 / . 3.5 2 . 5
3 . /%0# : 80 ) ),/%0#" %'! ( ,1 72.5 ) ),'%';" %'! ( , 4,%;/ : 75.83 ,
3;,** : 75.83 ) = 3185/42 .(
4 . 1 . %7!/ "1!3"" !# 3,575 !,6. "%"% 3;,**" 5 , &*,!0 225/5 # " / : "%"% #6/" 3;,**" 395
# " / .


25
5 . &#'1 %1 ),&,0#*" &6( &,&5 1! %0 #6/" 4,%;/" ,"* )36! ) )&,0#*" !35 /&0"5 ,-%1 &,05"
&),%5 "",5." .(

5 . 3;,** : 5 487% 20/12 - "%"%, 73.33
/%0# : $%/%0# %-# ,%" , 1," /%0#" ")3, 80 .
4,%;/ : &1#-, "%" 75 .
6 . 1 . . "&6(5 ' .;%%* ,-%1 3;,**" . %-,;%7" 9&3" !!.5 )12 120 , 5,&* "5&"5 ",5. 3;,**! $&,.#
"&6(" %&51 .
5 .
4#% #6/
28 5.2 3;,**
5 5 4,%;/
4%1 4%1 /%0#
7 .
. . 4,%;/ 5 . /%0# 1 . 3;,**
" . 3;,** 6 . 3;,** ,1 /%0#
8 . 1 . 3;,** : 72.26 , 5 . 3;,** : 70.73 , . . ),/%0#5 ")!'0", 3;*1" )6,7- 5,#%/ %!5, $3
9 . 3;,** : 107
10 .
1 . /%0# = 1750 4,%;/ = 1562.5 3;,** = 1570
5 . 803.125 = 1 Q - 3 Q
. . 2461.5 = 9/10 X 4,%!3 4,&%#3 727.27 = 1/10 X 4,)/) 4,&%#3
6 . 1233.3 = 30 X " 4,1* - 30
11 .
5 . 46.66 = 4/10 X %3%5& 4,&%#3 1 . 3;,** = 55.4 4,%;/ = 53.3 /%0# = 50
6 . %;" $" $%6%*!)" ,!!0% $"%-%5 $%-, 34.95 - 79.5 . . 1," ".!%*! $%6%*!)" $%102 ,-** 4,%;" 98.42


26
,('+ 13$0 5 - ,$8"( "44+

%"#,. ,('+ 8
1. $,0(" )1 ).;%%*" $%-,)- )&6( "-,)- ) $%!7# %-,%!%*5 ( ),/*)"" 4*25 4.8-& %1-08 $%/%,,&*# :
2 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 8 , 7 , 4 , 6 , 3 , 6 , 5 , 4 .
1 . 5#/ : /,,8 , ),-,# , 47) )%%8( .
- . 5 "&6(5 4,)- !0 !'0" - 2 $%66*" 4* 6/1 !0! "&,7 "* 4/5, .
2. 1," 3;,**" $%-,)- !# 8(5 80 1%" 47)" )%%8(, 10 . 3;,**" ,%"% "* , !# ),-,#", 47)" )%%8(
$1 $%-,)-" :
1 . !# 9&3 4,)- !0! +%(,- 5 . - . %' 4,)- !0 !%'0- - 5 . # . !/- 5 4,)- !0 7 - 5 .
3. !# ),.!')"" 10 !# 3;,** )!35 1%" $%-,)- 85 !# 47) )%%8(, 0 . )1 &2/#! 4)%- $1"
),.!')"" )1 $%5%0&*" $%%*!,." $%-,)-" ? ,7*- .
4. ),-,#5 &#1* &),% 47) )%%8(5 #*)#"! $%.",- 3,6* 6/1 8'#*5 ,&%5(" .
5. ,5#/ ),15" ),1*.,6"* )/1 !05 : /,,8 , %-,35&-%5 $,/) , 47) )%%8(, ),-,# .
1 1*.,6 ' :
"%.,!,7%(,*! .,/5 $%8-6,8( 5&75 , 1 "-# ,' ),15" ),1;,)" ,!57)", !%." 66*- :
f(x) X
3 19 - 23
10 23 - 27
8 27 - 31
4 31 - 35
5 1*.,6 ' :
5&75 ),1%&5" 6&#* 9&3# &7/*5 200 $%3,57 $%-#3* , 4,#%3* "!%*. )%-0) )!/)" %-'! ,
),%&.%(" &'(* 765- $,%5 3;,**5 4#3! ,."-# . ),15" ),1;,)" ,!57)" :
$%765-" &'(* f(x) $,%! ),%&.%( &'(* x
25 0 - 10
70 10 - 20


27
65 20 - 30
40 30 - 40

6. "8%(&5%-,15 $%.,/ %-#5 $%8-6,8( !# )%!.-15 $%-,%;" )1 $%*0(*" $%-,)- 4!"! :
5 .,/ ' 1 .,/ ' 66*"
71 78 3;,**
70 65 4,%;/
6 16 8( 47) )%%
1 . )%#%1 "1&," &),%5 8,7-! %,;& $%.,/" %-#* "2%15 ?
5 . 6/,%*5 $%5,8 )%!.-15 $"%.#%"# $%8-6,8( 1,;*! &),% &%5( $%.,/" %-#* "2%15 ?
. . 1 .,/5 ' 5 8-6,8( !0 !# ,-,%; )1 ),!3"! ,8%!/" - 5 ),6,7- . 3;,**" !3 %,-%#" 3%'#% 6;%0 ,
47)" )%%8(, 4,%;/" ) "5# "/-"5 * &),% !5%7 1! 8-6,8( +1 )%&,7*" $%-,%;" ),.!') - 95 ( ?
6 . 5 .,/5 ' !# $%-,%; $!,(* &,53! 8!/," 1 - 100 !# $!,(! 1 - 10 , !0 !# ,-,%; )1 7!/! &*,!0
5 8-6,8( - 10 . 3;,**" !3 %,-%#" 3%'#% 6;%0 , 47)" )%%8(, 4,%;/" ) $%#6/" $"%0&3 ,%"% "* ( ?
7. ),%3,5#" ),(-0"" ),.!')" 4!"! !# 500 $%,(* !3'*5 $%65,3 :
f(x) X
10 0 - 100
30 100 - 200
32 200 - 300
38 300 - 400
75 400 - 500
155 500 - 600
70 600 - 700
38 700 - 800
30 800 - 900
22 900 - 1000
500 ( " "


28
1 . )3;,**" "(-0"" %"* , "/%0#", )%-,%;/" ?
5 . 4%5" $,/)" ,"* - ),.!')"" !# 47)" )%%8(, %-,35& ?
. . !0 $1 !# "1!3" !57* 65,3 5% ,&0#5 , 47)" )%%8(, $%%20&*" $%66*" ,-)#% 6;%0 ?
6 . +%(,"!, !3'*5 $%65,3" !0 !# $5;* )1 &'#! 8!/," 50 /# ' 3,5#! , )%8(, 3;,**" ,%"% "*
$%#6/" 47)" ?

8. ),)%0 %)# !# $%-,%;" ),%,.!')" ),-,)- :
f (x) ")%0 2 f (x) ")%0 1 X
- 1 50 - 55
- 2 55 - 60
- - 60 - 65
5 - 65 - 70
6 6 70 - 75
7 6 75 - 80
6 10 80 - 85
6 5 85 - 90
30 30 ( " "
1 . $%.#%"" )*& %'! ),)%0" )1 ,,#" ) 3;,** (
5 . ),%-.,&8"" )*& %'! ),)%0" )1 ,,#" ) 47)" )%%8( (
. . ),%-.,&8"" )*& %'! ),)%0" )1 ,,#" ) 4%5 $,/) - %-,35& (
6 . 5 $%1)*0 "1&- &,2%' 66* "2%1 "2 "&7*5 &),% , 3,6*, ?

,('+ %"#,. 2$,.( 8
1 . 1 . /,,8 : 7
),-,# ) $.6* :( 4.27 , ) "%%(,!0,1 :( 3.92 .
47) )%%8( ) $.6* :( 2.07 , ) "%%(,!0,1 :( 1.98 .
5 . /,,8 : 14 =) 3,57" X 7 (


29
),-,# : 17.09 =) 3,5%&5 3,57" X 4.27 (
47) )%%8( : 4.13 =) 3,57" X 2.07 (


30
2 .
),-,# 47) )%8( 3;,**
100 10 85 1
2500 50 400 5
4 2 16 .
3 . $%,,# "&6(" %&51 !0 85 .
4 . 7/&*0 "5& )%5%8%1,8-%1 ),3*#* #% 47) )%%8(! ) !1*#!, 4%*%! ( 47) %-,%; ),.!')"5 3;,**"* .
)%5%8%1,8-%1 ),3*#* 1!! &,2%' 66* 1%" ),-,#" , ),%&,7*" ),6%/%5 4)%-# .
5 . ,5. %'! $-%" 4!"!# ),-,&)'" $%*,6* ),! , $%&8*&' $-%", ) 5 "7,!/ %'! 5,#%/ - n (
1 "*.,6 ' :
/,,8 : 16
( . ) : 3.6
),-,# : 12.96
4%5 $,/) - %-,35& : Q3-Q1=29.875-24.3=5.575
5 "*.,6 ' :
/,,8 : 40
( . ) : 9.43
),-,# : 89
4%5 $,/) - %-,35& : Q3-Q1=28.46-13.57=14.89
6 . 1 . 1 .,/5 ' %5%6-%1 "1&," &),%5 8,7-! %,;& )%!1,6 . $%!65"! 66* ",,"* 47)" )%%8(
1 .,/5 &),% "!,6. 1%", $%!1,6%5%6-%1" ' .
5 . 1 .,/5 5,# ' . 1 .,/5 ' 5 .,/5* &),% 9,*- 4,%;/" ' &),% ",5. 3;,**", . $%%-,;%7 $%0&3 90! ,*&.
3;,**" !3 ,3%'#"# $%",5. ) 3 $. )12 7%("! &#'1 " 47)" )%%8(, 3;,**" % .(
. . 3'#" !# " )'(," 3,57 :
3;,** : 78+5=83 4,%;/ : 65+5=70 ( " ) : 16 ) "-)#* 1! .(
6 . !# "3'#" "7,!/ 3,575 :
3;,** : 71:10=7.1 4,%;/ : 70:10=7 ( " ) : 6:10=0.6 .


31
7 . 1 . )3;,**" "(-0"" : 531.4 )%-,%;/" "(-0"" : 541.94 "/%0#" "(-0"" : 550
5 . )" 4%5" $,/ - %-,35& : 230 = 420 - 650 = 1 Q - 3 Q 47)" )%%8( : 203.55
. . 3;,** : 557.97 = 1.05 * 531.4 4,%;/ : 569.037 = 1.05 * 541.94
/%0# : 577.5 = 1.05 * 550 47)" )%%8( : 213.73 = 1.05 * 203.55
6 . 3;,** : 581.4 = 50 + 531.4 )%%8( "-)#* 1! 47)"
8 .
4%5 $,/) - %-,35& 47) )%%8( 3;,**
10 = 73.75 - 83.75 8.8 77.67 ")%0 1
11.67 = 72.08 - 83.75 6.82 77.83 ")%0 2
4%5" $,/)" - +%63 &,2%' 66* 1," %-,35& - $%%-,;%7 $%0&3* 3'#,* ,-%1 1,"# %-'* .


32
%"#,. ,('+ 9
1. )0%&; )1 7,65! 8%!/" %17%8(%88( ,)%-,0* !# 7!6" . $%*3' &#3 , 3,5#! )/1 , !0%* )1 1!%*
(* )1 5#%/, ,)%-,0* !# 7!6" ' 7" " 3,5# ,),15 ,)%-,0* ")#3# &8%!! * . 1;* ),6%6*" &*.5
")%" )3;,**" "0%&;"# 10.8 7 " &8%!! * , 47)" )%%8(, ) 3,5#! 3,5#* ( ")%" 0.18 7 " *
&8%!! . !# 7/&*" 6* %0 ,! &&5)" 40* &/1! 4%7) ,-%1 ,)%-,0* , 7& 66,*, 5 7 " !0 9,)* * 10
7 " * . "&5( ,)#1 "0%&;" $,#%&5 5,# /,&8! ,%!3 %0 , &*1, "3%.&" %17%8(%88(" $!,1 , #% %0
),38" 4,7%)! &),% "!7 9&6 . 9&6" %"* ? 7!6" )0%&;! $%-7,)*" $%66*" $"*, ? ) , 3;,** )%8(
47) .(
2. )-5"5 )*%,(* ")%0 !# $%-,%;" ),.!')" 4,5#/5 ")%0 "),1 %-,%; ),.!')" $3 "),,#," 1&7-" .
$%"2 ),3,;7*" %-#5 $%-,%;" %3;,** %0 1;*- , ),-,#* "",5. 1&7-" )-5" %-,%; !# ),-,#" 91
4,5#/5 $%-,%;" . ),%8(" $,0(* !,6. $3;,** 1&7-" )-5" %-,%; !# ),%8(" $,0( %0 &,&5 410*
$3;,** 4,5#/" %-,%; !# . 4,0- / 4,0- 1! . &5("
3. "7%2%'5 "-/5- $%6%*!) );,57 . ,%" 4/5*5 ,!57)"# $%-,%;" 6 , 8 , 9 65!5 . ,!57 $%6%*!) "#%# 9
, "%" ";,57 3;,** 8 .
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5 . ")%" ),-,#" 0.5 , ";,575 ,%" $%6%*!) "*0 ?
4. ),%(,!0,1 %)# !# $%-,)- 4!"! :
1 "%(,!0,1 ' : 3;,** 70 ; ( . ) . 10
5 "%(,!0,1 ' : 3;,** 40 ; ( . ) . 30
1 . $),1 &/,5 )%%" ";,57 ,2%1* 6/,%*5 $%",5. $%-,%; %!35 $%765- );,57 &,/5! 9%&; )%%" ,! ?
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".%;"! %60 $%-,1*" !# ),-,#" )1 5#/* 1," "%%(,!0,15 )%!*&,- .!')* %!,!%* &#,0# "/-"5
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33
2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 9
1. 6* 7/&*" &'( ½ ),*0* $%&8*,!%7" , 40!, #% !,'0! )1 $%66*" 5 - 2 , !3 )-* 47)! )1 ),38" .
3;,** = 21.6 )%8( 47) = 0.36
2. 1! 4,0- . $,0( ),%8(" 4* 3;,**" ,-%" 6%*) ('1 , 1!! &#7 !6,.! ),-,#" .
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5 . ";,57 5 ' . 3;,**" 9,*- (, . ) "!,6. .
5. ,&5/ .


34
13$0 ,('+ 6 - 2$"9 2).

%"#,. ,('+ 10
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&0#" 3;,** 1500 # " 47) )%%8( $3 / 400 .
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&0)#* $%,(* &%0# 1700 6*!, !7# 15 "-# . &),% ",5. &%0#" !# %(/%" ,5;* "-)#* "2%15 ?
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1," "%.,!,%;,(! Z=+2 . 4/5*5 ,-,%;* &),% ",5. /&0"5 "%.,!,%;,(5 4/5*5 %&,7*" ,-,%; $1"
"7%8(%88(5 ?
3. :&1! ,3%."# $%&2%/ !# $"%!.& +7%" !3 $%-,)- $0%-'! : 29 , 30 , 33 , 33 , 36 , 37
1 . 47)" %-,%; )1 ,2 "&6(! ,5#/ .
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47)" 4,%; "5,.5 )%-),* . 1," 4/5*5 $%-,%;" 3;,** 70 47)" )%%8(, 10 .
!3* ,.%#"# $%6*3,* 7& ,!57)% "1,'&! "8!,7'! 2 = Z
!3* ,.%#"# $%6*3,* 7& ,!57)% "%.,!,0%(' %6,*%!! 1 = Z
!3* !# .#%" - 1 = Z "!57 &#'1* ),&/1" ),8!,7'! .
1 . "!57 "-%6 89 "1,'&! !57)) $1" ?
5 . "%.,!,0%('! !57)"! %60 #&6-" %!*%-%*" $!." 4,%; ,"* ?
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47)" ),%8(, :
4,%; 47) )%8( ** 3;,
84 4 78 "7%8*)*
90 12 80 )%!.-1
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35
&),%5 9,*-5 "2%15, &),%5 ",5." %(/%" $,7*5 8-6,8(" .&,6* 3,;7* "2%15 ?

6. "7%8(%88(5 "-%/55 !5%7 45,1& 83 ,!# 47)" 4,%;, 1.8 . $%-,%;" !# 47)" )%8( %0 3,6%
1%" "7%8(%88(5 5 .
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2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 10
1. ,-%" &0#5 47)" 4,%; 0.5 . ),-#5 - ,-%" 47)" 4,%; 6,*%! 1.067 . 90! %1 , &),% ",5. %(/%" ,5;*
,-#5 6,*%! ) .
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3. 1 . - 1.38 , - 1.04 , 0 , 0 , + 1.04 , + 1.38 .
5 . 3;,** = 0 , ( . ) = 1
4. 1 . "1,'&! !57)) 1! "-%6 : 1.9 = Z
5 . 80 = 10 + 70
. . 60 = - 10 + 70 .
5. ),&'(5 &),%5 ",5." $,7*5 )%(/% .&,6* 8-6,8(" ) 2 = Z ( , )%!.-15 &),%5 9,*-" %(/%" $,7*5,
) 0.83 = Z .( $%&/1" ),3,;7*" %-# 4%5 %(/%" ,*,7* "7%8*)*5 ) 1.5 = Z .(
6. 1 . ),.!')"" 3;,** : 74
5 . "-%/55 4,3*# !# $!." 4,%; : 67.5
7. 1! , %*!,." 4,%;" &(/ %0 .


36
13$0 ,('+ 7 - .$#%(.! ."%1+,$0
%"#,. ,('+ 11
1. 1 . *" 4%5 /8#" 1," "* 47) 4,%; 4%5! 3;,* 1.49 = Z ?
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"-#5 $%/&' ?
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&53*" ?
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2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 11
1 . 1 . 0.4319 5 . 0.3962 .
2 . 0.2734 + 0.4332 = 0.7066
3 . 45.25% ((162-172)/10)=-1.67!)
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5 . &53* 4,%; : 68 ) 25% $%!#0- " 1," &53*! 47) 4,%; - . 67 (
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37
5 . 201
) ((48-56)/12=-0.67 ! 0.2486 ! 1-(0.5+0.2486)=0.2514 ! 0.2514*800=201
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38
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39
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40
9. 600 4,%* )-%/55 $%-/5- $%8-6,8( , !3 !,"%-, "%#3) %6,*%!! !57)"! )-* . ! $,7* #% "7!/*5 -
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2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 12
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2 . 64.8 = X
4 . 75.5 = X


41
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42
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43
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44
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46
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6 . 5/15*6/20
" . 1-(8*15*6/20)




47
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48

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* !# ),&5)(" 5,#%/ 3&,1 A %1-)5 B 3 " )%-),* ),&5)(" )/(,- ' :
) P(A/B)=P(AnB)/P(B
) P(AnB - ),3&,1* 9,)%/ ),&5)(" - $. 5 $,61 $., , 3&,1* ),&5)(" )!'0* 1%" ),&5)("" A
3&,1* ),&5)("5 B , &*,!0 2/52 .
) P(B - 0.5 ) $,61 +!7 1%;,"! ),&5)(" .(
)%-),*" ),&5)("" %"* 5#/! 4)%- )30 ) : P(A/B)=2/52:0.5=0.076 (2/26
4 . 45! 4,#1&" &#10 , ,&),- 605 5 , $%&,/# 2 - $%-5! . 1%" 45! +,!#! ),&5)("" 40! 0.285 = 2/7


49

5 . !,/0 4,#1&"# ),&5)(" – 5/9 . !,/0 4,#1&" $1 , 605 ,&),- 4 , $%&,/# 4 - $%!,/0 . ),&5)(""
1%" ")3 !,/0 1%;,"! 0.5 = 4/8 .
1 ),3&,1* %-## ),&5)("" ),%,&5)("" )!'0* 1%" ,&7% "! : 5/9*4/8 = 0.278
6 . !,/0 4,#1&"# ),&5)(" – 5/9 . !,/0 %-#"# ),&5)(" - &56 ,),1 , "-)#" 1! $.6*" 5/&* ) $3
"&2/" .( 40! , 1%" $%!,/0 %-# +,!#! ),&5)("" : 5/9*5/9 = 0.309
7 . 1 . $%%,!) %)!5 ),3&,1*" , &,/# &,60 )1;," ),3&,1* )!'0* 40!, 60 !0* :
2/5*6/11=0.218
5 . $%%,!) %)!5 ),3&,1*" , 60 !0* 45! &,60 )1;," ),3&,1* )!'0* 40!, : 3/5*5/11=0.272
. . "#%&6! $%*%1)*" ),3&,1* %-# $-#% :
1 . 1 60* ' 5 60*, 45! &,60 ' &,/# &,60 . 2/5*5/11=2/11
2 . 1 60* ' 5 60*, &,/# &,60 ' 45! &,60 . 3/5*6/11=18/55
),3&,1* $,0( 1%" "5,#)" 1 , - 2 ) ),3&,1* 6,/%1 :( 2/11+18/55=0.509
8 . :3 !57! ),&5)(" - 0.25 . %!' !57! ),&5)(" - 0.75 .
"&6(! ),&5)(" : :3 , :3 , %!' , 1%" %!' : 0.25*0.25*0.75*0.75=0.035
9 .
1 . 0.2/0.3
5 . 0.1/0.4



50
%"#,. ,('+ 15
$"90-+$)$ .$"9/$+,( .
1. !# &.1* %! #% 10 ),!1# , &,/5! ";,& %-1 40,)* 2 . %! #% ),%,&#'1 "*0 ) "-#* 1! &6(" ( ?
2. -0 " ! . &,/5! ";,& %-1 5 40,)* . %! #% ),%,&#'1 "*0 ) "-#* 1! &6(" ( ?
3. #% "!1# !0! 3 ),%&#'1 ),5,#) , "-,0- 4"* )/1 7& . " !0 !3 ),-3! %,0%(" "* - 10 4,0- ?
4. " !0 !3 ),-3! %,0%(" "* - 10 4,0- 1! ?
5. ),-,#1&" ),!1#" %)# !3 7& 4,0- ),-3! %,0%(" "* ?
6. ),-,&/1" ),!1#" %)# !3 7& 4,0- ),-3! %,0%(" "* ?
7. ),!1# !3 7& ),-3! %,0%(" "* 1,5 4,0- 1! ?
8. 4"#!0 ),!1# %)# !3 4,0- ),-3! %,0%(" "* ?

2$/$"0 %3 5$0"-!
9. $3 "/'#*5# ),&5)("" "* 5 45 "%"% &6(" $%6!% , )5 , )5 , 45 , 45 ?
10. ,%"% "/'#*5# ),&5)("" %"* 2 , ),-5 - 3 $%-5 ?
11. $%2.' :%;'*! 4 ),&8* . $" "3%.'" %%,0%( 1/3 . 5 7& 3.'% :%;'*"# ),&5)("" "* - 3 ),&8*"
),-,&/1" ?
12. 5 3.'%# ),&5)("" %"* - 3 9,)* 4 ),&8* ?



51
2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 15
1 . C(
10
/
8
) = 10!/8!2!
2 . C(
10
/
5
) = 5!/5!2!
3 . (1/3)
10
4 . (2/3)
10

5 . (1/3)
2
*(2/3)
8

6 . (1/3)
2
*(2/3)
8

7 . (1/3)
8
*(2/3)
2

8 . C(
10
/
8
)* (1/3)
2
*(2/3)
8
= 10!/8!2!* (1/3)
2
*(2/3)
8

9 . (1/2)
5

10 . C(
5
/
3
)* (1/2)
3
*(1/2)
2
= 5!/3!2!* (1/2)
5

11 . 2/3*1/3*1/3*1/3=2/81
12 . C(
4
/
3
)* (2/3)
1
*(1/3)
3
= 4!/3!1!* (2/3)
1
*(1/3)
3




52
%"#,. ,('+ 16
1. 1," )*%,(* "#7 "!/** $%*%!/*" 2,/1 40% . 9,)*# ),&5)("" %"* 4 $%!,/ :
1 . 7,%65 2 ,*%!/% ?
5 . ),/'! 2 ,*%!/% ?
2. !%0* &%#0* 5 ),&5)(" )/1 !0!, ),%,!) %)!5 ),"2 ),6%/% 80% 4%7) 5;*5 1;*%"! . &%#0*"
),/'! ,5 #%#0 7& !3,' ,!,0 3 ,-%7) ),6%/% ) . $%,(* 3.&5 !3'% &%#0*"# ),&5)("" "* ?
3. (1., (1!5 ),5& $%-# "2* "",#" $%&,*%" %7(3! 6/,%*" ,-;3,% ) %)-,0#" ,-%275 ),/*)" &/1! (
"8!,&" 7/#* )1 83*5 &%02*" #6/ 7/#* 1;*," %0 ,-! &'%( . !05 ),02! %,0%(" " 5,5%( " 7/#*
)%3%5# 1," ) 7/1 .(
1 . ;3,% !1 "-' $%&*"*" 6/1 "&#3 9,)* "#,!#5 ),02! ),&5)("" )1 ,&,53 5#/%# #7%5, ,-
"!10 $%5,5%( . "',/6 "&23 #7%5, (7'5 $0%!1 "-' ,-;3,% - ,! ,&*1) "* ?
5 . +(,- &*"* , %6*! &2,* , 4,&/1", 4,#1&" $%5,5%(5 ),02! %,0%(" "* )36! ";& 65!5 9,)*
"&#3" - ,! ,&*1) "* ?
. . +(,- &*"* , ),/' 1! &2,* , 65!5 %#%#", %#%*/" $%5,5%(5 ),02! %,0%(" "* )36! ";& - "*
,! ,&*1) ?
6 . 5 &*"* !# ),&5)("" $1" "",) ,(%05 "%,;* "-%1 "8,&'"# 4&7( %-,!' ' !# ,2* "-,# ),02!
. &*"* ' . ,&%5(" .

2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 16
1 . 0.6 )= $%!,/ &1#%"! ( P 0.4 )= $%*%!/* ( P
1 . 7,%65 2 ,*%!/% : 5,#)" !# $%%&#'1" $%&,6%(" &'(* 1%" " 2 !# ";,57 9,)* $%1%&5* 4 , !'0,*
1! 7,%65 $%%-#, ,1%&5% 7,%65 $%%-## ),&5)("5 - ,1%&5% .
.3456 0 = /25 9 * /25 4 ! * 2 ! 2 !/ 4 =
2
) /5 3 *(
2
) /5 2 )*(
2
/
4
( C
5 . ),/'! 2 ,*%!/% : ),/'! $"5 ),3&,1*" $,0(* )50&,* "5,#)" 2 $%*%!/* , !# "*!/" &*,!0 2 ,
!# "*!/" 3 !# "*!/", 4 .
0 )12 ),1&! $. 4)%- 1 - $%!#*" 3,&%1" ),&5)(" ),/' , #, $%!/* 1! 6/1 +1# 1,", 1 - $%!/* 7,%65 .
5#/! 9%&; 5,#%/" %0&6 %)#5 2 ),%,&5)(" ) 15 ,-5#%/ 7,%65 $%%-# !# ),&5)("" )1 %&" %0 ' .(


53

P($%!/* 1! 6/1 +1)= C(
4
/
0
)*0.6
4
= 0.1296
P( 7,%65 1 $%!/* )= C(
4
/
1
)*0.6
3
*0.4=4*0.216*0.4=0.3456
),3&,1*" %-# &,5%/ : 0.4752
* ")/'" 1 - $%!#*" 3,&%1" ),&5)(" )36! %60 - .5248 0
2 . 4%7) &%#0*"# ),&5)("" 0.8 . !,7!7! ),&5)("" 0.2 .
),/'! 3 $%15" ),3&,1*" 6,/%1 ,3*#* ),-%7) ),6%/% :
* 3 /% ),-%7) 7,%65 ),6% - C(
5
/
3
)*0.8
3
*0.2
2
=5!/2!3!*0.512*0.04=0.2048
* 4 ),-%7) 7,%65 ),6%/% - C(
5
/
4
)*0.8
4
*0.2=5*0.4096*0.2=0.4096
* 5 ),-%7) 7,%65 ),6%/% - C(
5
/
5
)*0.8
5
=0.32768
),%,&5)("" $,0( ) ),3&,1* 6,/%1 :(
.94208 0 = .32768 0 + .4096 0 + .2048 0
3 . ),02! %,0%( : 1/7 . 6%('"! %,0%( : 6/7
1 . n=10 , r=3 . &6( %0 "%;-%5*,7 %'! 5#/- 3 9,)* ),%02" 10 5,#/ ,-%1 $%5,5%(" :
.1187 0 = .34 0 * .00291 0 * 120 =
7
) /7 6 *(
3
) /7 1 )*(
3
/
10
( C
5 . "&,*)5 $%-%-,3* ,-/-1 $3'" ) "%;8,*&' ( ),%&#'1" ),&,*)" !0 4%5* "6%/%, )/1 , "&6(" 1%", :
4,/;- , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 4,/;- .
,20 )/1 ),&#'1 7& "-#% , 1%" ,20 "&6(! ),&5)("" 40!, :
.0059 0 =
8
) /7 6 *(
2
) /7 1 (
. . "15" ),1;,)" )&6(5 $%-%-,3* ,-1 :
6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 4,/;- , 4,/;- , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" , 6('" .
,20 )/1 "&6( 7& "-#% , 5 +%3(! ""2 "5,#)", ' :
.0059 0 =
8
) /7 6 *(
2
) /7 1 (
6 . 6/ ),&6( %)#5 &5,6*# 4,,%0* - $%6('" "-,*#, ),-,/;%- %-# !# ),%*3' , ""2 ),&5)("" .


54
%"#,. ,('+ 17
."%+,$0$ ."+$0"- .$#%(.!
1. )5 "/'#*5# ),&5)("" "* 5 ,%"% $%6!% :
1 . $%-5 "#,!# .
5 . ),-5 35&1 .
. . ),-5 #,!# ),/'! .
2. %17%&*1 4/5*5 8 ),!1# . "!1# !0! 4 "5,#) ),%,&#'1 . ),5,#)" )1 #/-* 6%*!) .
1 . ),5,#)" !0 )1 4,0- #/-! ),&5)("" "* ?
5 . ),5,#) ## 4,0- #/-! ),&5)("" "* ?
. . ),5,#) ## ),/'! 4,0- #/-! ),&5)("" "* ?
6 . ),5,#)" !0 )1 4,0- 1! #/-! ),&5)("" "* ?
3. )/1 $3' ),/'! !57! ),&5)("" "* 4 5 - 3 ),7%&2 "%5,7 !# ?
4. $,-%5 %6% !3 ,&)' ) 9&6" 7& ( )%!*&,- ),.!')" %6% !3 4", : 7&2- 358* 100 $%*3' . 4* 2,/1 "2%15
4%5 !57- $%&7*" 40 ! 60 - :3 $%*3' ?
5. !!0 9&65 $%/%!;* )/1 ")%05 40% $%6%*!)" 4* . # ),&5)("" )1 ,-%%; :
1 . /%!;% 1! 6/1 +1 "#%*/ 9,)* .
5 . 9,)* 10 ),/'! 8 /%!;% , .
6. 3;,** $3 )%!*&,- $%.!')* $%6%*!) )%%(,!0,1 !# "%-,%; 70 47) )%%8(, 10 .
1 . ,-** ",5. 4,%; $%6%*!)"* 35&!# 4,%;" )1 ,1;* .
5 . %1&715 $%&/,5 2 "%%(,!0,1" 4* $%6%*!) . 4%5 ,%"% $"%-# !# $%-,%;"# ),&5)("" %"* 64
4%5! 88 ?
7. 1%" %&%" )&8*5 "3%.'! ),&5)("" 0.33 .
1 . "&% !%%/ $1 5 ),%&% , $%*3' #,!# 3.'# ),&5)("" "* ?
5 . )%3%5&" "%%&%5 ")%%" "&8*5 "-,#1&" "3%.'"# ),&5)("" "* ?
8. 3;,** $3 )%!*&,- .!')* ";%5 !7#* 50 . ' 47) )%%8(, 10 . ! )/)* "!7#*# ";%5 - 40 . ' 1%"
&'(* ";%5 3 . ,'(1- $%,(* $,%5 100 $%;%5 . ! !0,-# ),&5)("" "* !# )/1 )%-5) ),/'! 1!*
&'(* $%;%5 3 ? ) 9)3%6%! , ! $,7* )%-5)5 - 25 $%;%5 .(



55
2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 17
1 . 1 . $%6!% "#%*/ - n=5 ; 3 $%-5 – "/!;" - r=3
p=0.5 q=0.5
C(
5
/
3
)*(0.5)
3
*(0.5)
2
= C(
5
/
3
)*(0.5)
5
5 . -0 " ! , &#10 r=4 C(
5
/
4
)*(0.5)
4
*(0.5)
1
= C(
5
/
4
)*(0.5)
5
. . ),/'! 3 ),-5 - &#10 ),&5)("" )1 5#/! #% r=4, r=3 &#10, r=5 $0(!,
),%,&5)("" )#,!# )1 .
C(
5
/
3
)*(0.5)
5
+C(
5
/
4
)*(0.5)
5
+ C(
5
/
5
)*(0.5)
5
2 . 1 . n=8 , r=8
p=0.25 ) "5,#) 1 4%5* "-,0- 4 ),5,#) (
q=0.75 ) )%17%&*1" "!1#5 ),38! %,0%(" (
),-3! ),&5)("" ),!1#" !0 !3 4,0- : C(
8
/
8
)*(0.25)
8
*(0.75)
0
= (0.25)
8
5 . -0 " ! , &#10 r=6 C(
8
/
6
)*(0.25)
6
*(0.75)
2
. . &,53 $,-%5" )1 5#/! #% r=6 ) 3( ' 5 ' ( , r=7 , , r=8- ) 3( ' 1 ' ( ),%,&5)("" )#,!# )1 $0(!, :
C(
8
/
8
)*(0.25)
8
*(0.75)
0
+ C(
8
/
7
)*(0.25)
7
*(0.75)
1
+C(
8
/
6
)*(0.25)
6
*(0.75)
2
6 . #/-! " 4,0- 1! " ,#,&%' 0 ),/!;" , &*,!0 r=0 .
C(
8
/
0
)*(0.25)
0
*(0.75)
8
=(0.75)
8
3 . !57! %,0%(" 4 1," )/1 "%5,7 )7%&25 1/6 . &*,!0 , q=5/6 , p=1/6
),%5,7 #,!# )7%&2 : n=3 .
" !57! 4 ),7%&2 #,!#5 )/1 $3' ),/'! " - &,53 $,-%5 5#/! #% r=1 , r=2 , , - r=3 )1 $0(!, 3
),%,&5)("" .
C(
3
/
3
)*(1/6)
3
*(1/6)
0
+ C(
3
/
2
)*(1/6)
2
*(1/6)
1
+C(
3
/
1
)*(1/6)
1
*(1/6)
2


56

4 . ."+$0"- .$#%(.! :
n=100 , ),/!;"" &'(*, r 4%5 3- 40 ! 60 - . !# 9&3 !0! r ),&5)("" )1 5#/! 9%&; , 1%" "5,#)",
),%,&5)("" $,0( :
C(
100
/
40
)*0.5
100
+C(
100
/
41
)*0.5
100
+...+C(
100
/
60
)*0.5
100
."%+,$0 .$#%(.! :
),-,%(%-" &'(*, ),%" ) (n 1%" 4,!#%0!, "/!;"! ),&5)("", ),%", !,6. 0.5 , (* 3;,**# /%-"! &),* '
)%!*&,- .!')* ),/!;"" . "-,)-" )%*,-%5" ),.!')"" !# $%-,)-" )1 $,#&- :
n=100
40<r<60
P(r)=0.5
),.!')"" 3;,** - n*p=100*0.5=50
!# 47) )%%8( ),.!')"" - <n*p*q = <100*0.5*0.5 = 5
&*,!0 , 3;,** $3 )%!*&,- ),.!')" ,2# /%-- 50 47) )%8(, 5 , ),.!')"" !# ),/,!5 7,65-,
$%*%1)*" 47)" %-,%; )1 )%8&6-8(" .
9&3! 47) 4,%; 40 - Z
40
=(40-50)/5=-2
9&3! 47) 4,%; 60 - Z
60
=(60-50)/5=2
47) %-,%; 4%5 /8#" -2 63 2 1," !!,0 95.4%
5 . 1 . 3 4,&)'" " )%*,-%5 ),.!')" % , &#10 : P=0.4 ,r=0 ,n=5 .
9,)*# ),&5)("" 5 1%" /%!;% 1! 6/1 +1 : C(
5
/
0
)*(0.4)
0
*(0.6)
5
=(0.6)
5
5 . ),/'! 8 ,/%!;% - "/!;" !# ),%*,-%5 ),%,.!')" #,!# &5/- , $%&7*" !05 &#10 n=10 ) &'(*
1," ),-,%(-" 10 ( &'(*, ),/!;"" ) (r 1," 8 , 9 , 10 - .
C(
10
/
8
)*(0.4)
8
*(0.6)
2
+ C(
10
/
9
)*(0.4)
9
*(0.6)
1
+C(
10
/
10
)*(0.4)
10
*(0.6)
0

6 . 1 . $%6%*!)" 4* 35& = !# /8# 25% . "2 /8#! $%1)*" 47)" 4,%; z=0.67 .
-" 47) 4,%;! $!. 4,%; 5,#%/ " ! 76.7
5 . 4,%; 4%5 %,;*" /8#" 64 4,%;! 88 1," 68.98 .
/,5 $1 6%*!) %1&715 $%& , ,!# %,0%(" " !,'%! " 4%5 64 - 88 1," 0.69 .


57
!# %,0%(" 2 $%6%*!) ") $., (" 0.69 * 0.69

7 . 1 . n=5 , r=3 , q=0.67 , p=0.33
C(
5
/
3
)*(0.33)
3
*(0.67)
2
5 . %'%;'( &6(! ),&5)(" : (,'(' , (,'(' , (,'(' , "3%.'
40!, 0.67*0.67*0.67*0.33=(0.67)
3
*(0.33)
1
8 . (* ";%5 )!57! ),&5)("" ' 3 - 0.16 ) '3 " )%!*&,- ),.!')"5 /8# 5,#%/ % .(
)%*,-%5 ),.!')"! &,53- ,%#03 ) n=100, p=0.16, q=0.84 ( 3;,** "! 5#/-, ) n*p ( 47) )%8(, )
n*p*q √ (
3;,** " 16 ( " ) " 3.66
!3* %,;*" /8#" )1 1,;*! #% )30 25 .
)%',( "5,#) : 1!*! %,0%(" 25 1," "!3*, $%;%5 0.69% ) #,!7 %,0%( .(



58
%"#,. ,('+ 18
1. "7%8*%)* !# $%-,# $%&'( "#%*/ )5 ";,57 &6(! 4)%- $%-,# $%-',1 "*05 , "7%(%' !# "35&1
$%-#! $,7* #% ,5 +6* !3 "%*%0 !# "#,!#, - $%&'( &#3 . $,/) ,),1* $%&'(# 1," %/&0" %1-)
,6*3% "2 6%! "2 .
2. $%7)** &,;%! "&5/ !# 7,,# %;*1* )&.(*5 " %7)** " $%(&' 3;5* 4.&1! ,8%!/" . :3,%"
$%5;* %-# &,/5! #75)- "&5/" !# %8(%88(" . 4,#1&5 , 5 $%(&' ,!57% !&,.5 ,!3% &#1 $%#-1
%,,# - 9&3 - :&1" %*#5 "(%8 . %-#" "&7*5 , !&,., "%%!3" &6(! $1)"5 "-)#% (&'" 9&3 . 1&" 4,#
4,6-,!! "(%8 (%8&05 "02% , "1!" 40, :&1" %*#5 "(%8 (%8&05 %-#" ) !3 &'(5 "02% %#%*/"
:&15 ),5#%%)"" ),6!,) .( ),'))#" ),%,!. "1* +,(5! ,3%." "&5/" %6&#*! .
1 . "-,#1&" ),&#'1" %5.! , "',3)" "6#! 4%*2"! 4)%- $%#-1 "#%*/ !# $%%&#'1 $%',&; "*0
" %*#5 "(%8 9&,;! :&1 ?
5 . "%-#" ),&#'15 , $%*%%7 $%0,2 !# $%%&#'1 $%',&; "*0 ?
. . "-,#1& ),&#'15 :&1" %*#5 "(%85 ),02! %,0%(" "* ?
6 . "%-#" ),&#'15 4,6-,!! "(%85 ),02! %,0%(" "* ?
3. $%'!7 %-# $%'!#- "-%7) $%'!7 )!%5/ 9,)* . # ),&5)("" )1 ,1;* :
1 . ,-%1 4,#1&" +!7" 10 (1 ,1 4%,3* .
5 . (1 ,-%1 %-#" !51 (1 1," 4,#1&" +!7" .
. . $,!"% ,-%" ),/'! 6/1 +!7 .
6 . "&6( "),1! $%0%%)#* $-%1 $%'!7" ) ),#& .(
),&3" :
- #% $%'!7 )!%5/5 52 $%'!7 ) $%0&3 &#3 "#,!# X ),&,; 35&1 (
- ),&5)("! 1%" ),(/%%)"" ),!1#" !05 " ),&2/" 1!! "
4. %',; 85#5 " 4,'; " $%0%-/! ,-)%- $)&,;5 $%"2 $%!.6 "-,*# - $%*,61 "35&1 $0,)* , $%!,/0 $%-#
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&,;%! $%0%-/" $%!,0% $%!.6 ?



59
5. 1," "%%(,!0,15 $%17%(,*" 2,/1 %0 1;*- 30% . 1," "%%(,!0,15 $%&5." 2,/1 50% . 2,/1 ." ' .-% ' $%
1," "%%(,!0,15 5% .
1 . . %17%(,* ),%"! ),&5)("" "* ' .-% ' % ?
5 . . %17%(,* &5. ),%"! ),&5)("" "* ' .-% ' % ?
. . . 8&(! ,#&6- 5%;7)5 :,/! 7%'*! ' .-% ' $%17%(,*, $% . :!1- $%'(05 &,*/ &,(/* !!.5 91
. 65 4/5*! )1&,7" "36,* .%;"!, &#')"! ' .-% ' $%17%(,* ,1 $% . ("" "* ,1 1,;*! ),&5)
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64
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67
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2$,.( %"#,. ,('+ 21
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1 . 0.813 5 . 0.715 . . 15.927 6 . 66% " . 34%
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bxy= 0.56 * 3/2 = 0.84
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"%(&.&" )1,,#* : y’=10.12+0.84x
y’ = 10.12 +0.84*81 = 78.16
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a = x - bxy * y
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